Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased in the past? There isn't much evidence and we only have partial answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each one of these factors is.
We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and افضل شامبو وبلسم relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can expect to live longer than her brother.
This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.
The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
There is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however it increased dramatically over the last century.
By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, افضل شامبو وبلسم check that these two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.